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   2016| April-June  | Volume 6 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 26, 2016

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Nephrotic syndrome-induced thromboembolism in adults
Hasan F Al-Azzawi, Onyekachi C Obi, Javeryah Safi, Mingchen Song
April-June 2016, 6(2):85-88
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183019  PMID:27308257
Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a well-defined syndrome characterized by the presence of nephrotic range of proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperlipidemia. Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-reported complication associated with NS, the incidence, prevalence, risk factors, treatment options, and preventative strategies are not well-established. Thromboembolic phenomena in nephrotic patients are postulated to be a result of the urinary loss of antithrombotic factors by affected kidneys and increased production of prothrombotic factors by the liver. Most cases of VTE associated with NS reported in the literature have a known diagnosis of NS. We report a case of a young female presenting with dyspnea and a pulmonary embolism. She was found to have NS and right renal vein thrombosis. We review the available literature to highlight the best approach for clinicians treating VTE in patients with NS.
  5,126 384 17
EXPERT COMMENTARY
Ideal resuscitation fluid in hypovolemia: The quest is on and miles to go!
Mohanchandra Mandal
April-June 2016, 6(2):54-55
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183020  PMID:27308250
  5,137 350 4
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Traumatic brain injury related research in India: An overview of published literature
Amit Agrawal, Ashok Munivenkatappa, Dhaval P Shukla, Geetha R Menon, Rajesh Alogolu, Sagar Galwankar, Saginela Satish Kumar, Pathapati Rama Momhan, Ranabir Pal, Neeti Rustagi
April-June 2016, 6(2):65-69
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183025  PMID:27308253
Aim: This paper provides an overview of publications by Indian researchers on traumatic brain injury between 1966 and 2014, to set up a platform for evaluating and synthesizing the results and findings from brain injury research in India. Materials and Methods: All published articles from India related to brain injury since 1966 to 2014 were retrieved from PubMed using the search for (“craniocerebral trauma”[MeSH Terms] OR (“craniocerebral”[All Fields] AND “trauma”[All Fields]) OR “craniocerebral trauma”[All Fields] OR (“head”[All Fields] AND “injury”[All Fields]) OR “head injury”[All Fields]) AND (“India”[MeSH Terms] OR “India”[All Fields]) A data base for variables like study type/category, year of publication, place of study institutes and departments to which the corresponding author belonged or where the study was conducted and the journal of publication was developed in FileMaker Pro 13 Advanced® software. Frequencies and percentages was obtained using R statistics software. Results: A total of 624 original research articles from India were reviewed. There was a substantial increase in the number of publications from 2006 (175) to 2014 (213). Eighty percent of studies were primary clinical observational type. Only 1.6% of studies were on animal experiments. Original research articles were about 55.8%. One fourth of the studies are prospective in nature. Researchers from 46 medical departments have been involved in publishing papers on traumatic brain injury. Among these, the neurosurgery department has published highest number of publications (262), followed by the forensic medicine (32) and the neurology (21). Many institutes from 22 states have contributed in brain injury research. Delhi alone had published nearly one-fourth (23%) of papers. Eleven states had published papers in collaboration with other countries. Papers were published both in national and international journals. Neurology India had published 20.6% of papers. Conclusion: There is rapid increase in publications since last decade with multi departmental integration and international collaborations. However with existing brain injury resources in our country much more research work at both basic and clinical level should be encouraged.
  4,870 247 10
Traumatic brain injury: Does gender influence outcomes?
Ashok Munivenkatappa, Amit Agrawal, Dhaval P Shukla, Deepika Kumaraswamy, Bhagavatula Indira Devi
April-June 2016, 6(2):70-73
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183024  PMID:27308254
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health problem. Both genders are affected, but little is known about female TBI. The present study exclusively explores epidemiological, clinical, imaging, and death aspects of female TBI, and how it differs from males. Methods: It is a retrospective study. Data were documented from a tertiary institute during January 2010 to March 2010. All variables were documented on standard proforma. The data were analyzed using R statistics software. Age group was categorized into pediatric (<18 years), middle (19–60 years) and elderly (>61 years). Significance was tested using Chi-square test at the significance level ofP< 0.05. Results: Data of 1627 TBI patients were recorded. Of the total, female TBIs contributed nearly 20%. Compared to males, female patients reported higher percentages in manifesting symptoms (84.3% vs. 82.6%), injuries due to fall (32.1% vs. 24.4%), and surgical interventions (11.6% vs. 10.4%). Female patients were significantly higher in mild head injury group (76.8% vs. 69.5%, P - 0.016) and mortality (3.4% vs. 1.6%, P - 0.048). Number of patients and deaths was more among females than males in pediatric and elderly age group. Severities of injuries were more among female patients than male patients in middle and elder age groups. Conclusion: The study results observe that female TBI group differ significantly in the severity of injury and mortality.
  4,139 220 44
CASE REPORT
When the picture is fragmented: Vitamin B12deficiency masquerading as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
Tanmay S Panchabhai, Pradnya D Patil, Elizabeth C Riley, Charlene K Mitchell
April-June 2016, 6(2):89-92
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183026  PMID:27308258
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) has high mortality and necessitates prompt recognition of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) and initiation of plasmapheresis. We present a challenging diagnostic workup and management of a 42-year-old man who presented with anemia, thrombocytopenia, and schistocytes on peripheral smear, all pointing to MAHA. Plasmapheresis and steroid therapy were promptly initiated, but hemolysis continued. Further workup showed megaloblastic anemia, severe Vitamin B12deficiency, high iron saturation, and absent reticulocytosis, none of which could be explained by TTP. Severe Vitamin B12deficiency can lead to hemolytic anemia from the destruction of red cells in the marrow that have failed the process of maturation. However, this should not cause thrombotic microangiopathy. Previous reports of B12deficiency presenting with MAHA and a TTP-like manifestation have identified acute hyperhomocysteinemia as a missing link between B12deficiency and MAHA, so this possibility was further explored. Our patient similarly had significantly elevated serum homocysteine levels, confirming this suspicion of Vitamin B12deficiency. Vitamin B12replacement led to normalization of the elevated levels of homocysteine, the disappearance of schistocytes on the peripheral smear, and resolution of the microangiopathic hemolysis, thereby confirming the diagnosis. It is pertinent that intensivists not only know the importance of early recognition and treatment of TTP but are also familiar with rare conditions that can present in a similar fashion.
  3,948 136 7
BRIEF REPORT
A comparison of ketamine versus etomidate for procedural sedation for the reduction of large joint dislocations
Philip Salen, Michelle Grossman, Michael Grossman, Anthony Milazzo, Jill Stoltzfus
April-June 2016, 6(2):79-84
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183022  PMID:27308256
Study Objectives: Ketamine and etomidate are used for procedural sedation (PS) to facilitate the performance of painful procedures. We hypothesized that ketamine produces adequate and comparable sedation conditions for dislocated large joint reduction when compared to etomidate and results in fewer adverse events. Methods: This Institutional Review Board approved prospective trial compared a convenience sample of subjects, who were randomized to receive either ketamine or etomidate for PS to facilitate reduction of large joint dislocations. Following informed consent, subjects were assigned via a computer-generated algorithm to receive either etomidate (0.1 mg/kg) or ketamine (0.5 mg/kg) intravenously; if PS was not sufficient, subjects received repeat doses of etomidate or ketamine until adequate PS was achieved. The protocol's primary endpoint was a successful reduction of dislocated, large joints. Secondary endpoints included alteration in blood pressure, vomiting, recovery agitation, hypersalivation, laryngospasm, myoclonus, hypoxia, airway assistance with chin lift or jaw thrust, bag-valve-mask ventilation, endotracheal intubation, utilization of additional doses of ketamine or etomidate, and recovery time from sedation. Results: Total enrollment was eighty subjects, 46 in the ketamine cohort and 34 in the etomidate cohort. The two PS groups were comparable in terms of gender, age, and weight. There was no significant difference in the primary endpoint of large joint dislocation reduction between the ketamine and etomidate cohorts (46/46, 100%; 32/34, 94.1%; P- 0.1). Shoulder, hip, and ankle joints account for the majority of joint reductions in this trial. Titration of PS was necessary for almost half of each cohort as evidenced by the utilization of additional dosages of the sedative agents: ketamine (22/46, 47.8%) and etomidate (14/34, 41.2%; P- 0.56). Among secondary outcome variables, significant differences between ketamine and etomidate cohorts were myoclonus (1/46, 2.2%, 15/33, 45.5%; P- 0.0001), assisted ventilation with airway manipulation (3/45, 6.7%; 9/33, 27.3%; P- 0.01), and pulsoximetry desaturation < 90% (0/46; 7/34, 20.6%; P- 0.002). There was no significant difference in recovery time from PS between the ketamine and etomidate cohorts (11 min vs. 10 min; P- 0.69). Conclusion: Ketamine produces PS conditions for successful large joint dislocation reduction that are adequate and comparable to etomidate. The increased likelihood of myoclonus, of the requirement for airway assistance, and of hypoxia observed with etomidate suggest potential benefits with the utilization of ketamine for PS for dislocated large joint reduction.
  3,404 127 5
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Comparison of effectiveness of class lecture versus workshop-based teaching of basic life support on acquiring practice skills among the health care providers
Habib Md. Reazaul Karim, Md. Yunus, Prithwis Bhattacharyya, Ghazal Ahmed
April-June 2016, 6(2):61-64
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183018  PMID:27308252
Background: Basic life support (BLS) is an integral part of emergency medical care. Studies have shown poor knowledge of it among health care providers who are usually taught BLS by lecture-based teachings in classes. Objectives: This study is designed to assess the effectiveness of class lecture versus workshop-based teaching of BLS on acquiring the practice skills on mannequin. Methods: After ethical approval and informed consent from the participants, the present study was conducted among the health care providers. Participants were grouped in lecture-based class teaching and workshop-based teaching. They were then asked to practice BLS on mannequin (Resusci Anne with QCPR) and evaluated as per performance parameters based on American Heart Association BLS. Statistical analyses are done by Fisher's exact t-test using GraphPad INSTAT software and P< 0.05 is taken as significant. Results: There were 55 participants in lecture-based teaching and 50 in workshop-based teaching group. There is no statistical difference in recognition of arrest, checking pulse, and starting chest compression (P > 0.05). Though more than 83% of lecture-based teaching group has started chest compression as compared 96% of workshop group; only 49% of the participants of lecture-based group performed quality chest compression as compared to 82% of other group (P = 0.0005). The workshop group also performed better bag mask ventilation and defibrillation (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Workshop-based BLS teaching is more effective and lecture-based class teaching better is replaced in medical education curriculum.
  3,201 126 4
Evaluation of circulating haematopoietic progenitor cells in patients with Trauma Haemorrhagic shock and its correlation with outcomes
Manoj Kumar, Sanjeev Bhoi, Arulselvi Subramanian, Vineet Kumar Kamal, Sujata Mohanty, DN Rao, Sagar Galwankar
April-June 2016, 6(2):56-60
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183016  PMID:27308251
Background: Haemorrhagic shock accounts up to 50% of early trauma deaths. Hematopoietic failure has been observed in experimental animals and human following shock and injury. One of the facets of bone marrow failure is multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and is commonly seen in patients recovering from severe trauma and hemorrhagic shock. Bone Marrow (BM) dysfunction is associated with mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) into peripheral blood. Present study explored the association of peripheral blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) with mortality in trauma haemorrhagic shock patients (T/HS). Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort studies of patients presenting within 8 hrs of injury with T/HS to the Department of Emergency Medicine, Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma Center, All India Institute of Medical Sciences were recruited. Peripheral blood samples were collected in each patient for measurement of peripheral blood HPCs. Peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) quantification was performed by measuring HPCs counts using the haematology analyzer (Sysmex XE-2100). Clinical and laboratory data were prospectively collected after consent. Ethical approval was taken and data was analysed by Stata 11.2. Results: 39 patients with trauma hemorrhagic shock and 30 normal healthy controls were recruited. HPCs were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the T/HS as compared to control. Among study group, 14 patients died within 24 h. at the hospital admission, and found HPCs concentrations were highly significant (<0.001) in non-survivors (n = 14) when compared with survivors (n = 25) among T/HS patients. Conclusions: Our studies suggest the peripheral blood HPCs may be early prognostic marker for mortality among patients who presented with trauma hemorrhagic shock on admission. But the exact molecular mechanism and signalling pathway involved in the change of the behaviour of bone marrow microenvironment is still unclear.
  2,890 122 5
Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015
Mohammadreza Mehmandar, Hamid Soori, Yadolah Mehrabi
April-June 2016, 6(2):74-78
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183017  PMID:27308255
Background: Predicting the trend in traffic accidents deaths and its analysis can be a useful tool for planning and policy-making, conducting interventions appropriate with death trend, and taking the necessary actions required for controlling and preventing future occurrences. Objective: Predicting and analyzing the trend of traffic accidents deaths in Iran in 2014 and 2015. Settings and Design: It was a cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: All the information related to fatal traffic accidents available in the database of Iran Legal Medicine Organization from 2004 to the end of 2013 were used to determine the change points (multi-variable time series analysis). Using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, traffic accidents death rates were predicted for 2014 and 2015, and a comparison was made between this rate and the predicted value in order to determine the efficiency of the model. Results: From the results, the actual death rate in 2014 was almost similar to that recorded for this year, while in 2015 there was a decrease compared with the previous year (2014) for all the months. A maximum value of 41% was also predicted for the months of January and February, 2015. Conclusion: From the prediction and analysis of the death trends, proper application and continuous use of the intervention conducted in the previous years for road safety improvement, motor vehicle safety improvement, particularly training and culture-fostering interventions, as well as approval and execution of deterrent regulations for changing the organizational behaviors, can significantly decrease the loss caused by traffic accidents.
  2,632 154 6
EDITORIAL
What's new in critical illness and injury science? estrogen: Is it a new therapeutic paradigm for trauma-hemorrhagic shock?
Sanjeev Bhoi, Shreshtha Tiwari, Manoj Kumar
April-June 2016, 6(2):53-53
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183021  PMID:27308249
  2,589 90 2
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
The instance when a general surgeon “lost heart:” Isolated blunt traumatic rupture of both atria and pericardium
Mahir Gachabayov, Dmitriy Neronov
April-June 2016, 6(2):93-94
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.183023  PMID:27308259
  1,933 55 -
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