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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2014| January-March  | Volume 4 | Issue 1  
    Online since March 3, 2014

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Pediatric airway management
Jeff Harless, Ramesh Ramaiah, Sanjay M Bhananker
January-March 2014, 4(1):65-70
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128015  PMID:24741500
Securing an airway is a vital task for the anesthesiologist. The pediatric patients have significant anatomical and physiological differences compared with adults, which impact on the techniques and tools that the anesthesiologist might choose to provide safe and effective control of the airway. Furthermore, there are a number of pathological processes, typically seen in the pediatric population, which present unique anatomical or functional difficulties in airway management. The presence of one of these syndromes or conditions can predict a "difficult airway." Many instruments and devices are currently available which have been designed to aid in airway management. Some of these have been adapted from adult designs, but in many cases require alterations in technique to account for the anatomical and physiological differences of the pediatric patient. This review focuses on assessment and management of pediatric airway and highlights the unique challenges encountered in children.
  59 25,293 1,639
Airway management in cervical spine injury
Naola Austin, Vijay Krishnamoorthy, Arman Dagal
January-March 2014, 4(1):50-56
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128013  PMID:24741498
To minimize risk of spinal cord injury, airway management providers must understand the anatomic and functional relationship between the airway, cervical column, and spinal cord. Patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury may require emergent intubation for airway protection and ventilatory support or elective intubation for surgery with or without rigid neck stabilization (i.e., halo). To provide safe and efficient care in these patients, practitioners must identify high-risk patients, be comfortable with available methods of airway adjuncts, and know how airway maneuvers, neck stabilization, and positioning affect the cervical spine. This review discusses the risks and benefits of various airway management strategies as well as specific concerns that affect patients with known or suspected cervical spine injury.
  39 18,037 991
RV Chemsian, S Bhananker, R Ramaiah
January-March 2014, 4(1):35-41
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128011  PMID:24741496
The approach to airway management has undergone a dramatic transformation since the advent of videolaryngoscopy (VL). Videolaryngoscopes have quickly gained popularity as an intubation device in a variety of clinical scenarios and settings, as well as in the hands of airway experts and non-experts. Their indirect view of upper airway improves glottic visualization, including in suspected or encountered difficult intubation. Yet, more studies are needed to determine whether VL actually improves endotracheal intubation (ETI) success rates, intubation times, and first attempt success rates; and thereby a potential replacement to traditional direct laryngoscopy. Furthermore, advances in technology have heralded a wide array of models each with their own strengths, weaknesses, and optimal applications. Such limitations need to be better understood and alternative strategies should be available. Thus, the role of VL continues to evolve. Though it is clear VL expands the armamentarium not only for anesthesiologists, but all healthcare providers potentially involved in airway management.
  34 10,462 566
Advances in prehospital airway management
PE Jacobs, A Grabinsky
January-March 2014, 4(1):57-64
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128014  PMID:24741499
Prehospital airway management is a key component of emergency responders and remains an important task of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) systems worldwide. The most advanced airway management techniques involving placement of oropharyngeal airways such as the Laryngeal Mask Airway or endotracheal tube. Endotracheal tube placement success is a common measure of out-of-hospital airway management quality. Regional variation in regard to training, education, and procedural exposure may be the major contributor to the findings in success and patient outcome. In studies demonstrating poor outcomes related to prehospital-attempted endotracheal intubation (ETI), both training and skill level of the provider are usually often low. Research supports a relationship between the number of intubation experiences and ETI success. National standards for certification of emergency medicine provider are in general too low to guarantee good success rate in emergency airway management by paramedics and physicians. Some paramedic training programs require more intense airway training above the national standard and some EMS systems in Europe staff their system with anesthesia providers instead. ETI remains the cornerstone of definitive prehospital airway management, However, ETI is not without risk and outcomes data remains controversial. Many systems may benefit from more input and guidance by the anesthesia department, which have higher volumes of airway management procedures and extensive training and experience not just with training of airway management but also with different airway management techniques and adjuncts.
  26 8,408 553
Surgical Airway
Sapna A Patel, Tanya K Meyer
January-March 2014, 4(1):71-76
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128016  PMID:24741501
Close to 3% of all intubation attempts are considered difficult airways, for which a plan for a surgical airway should be considered. Our article provides an overview of the different types of surgical airways. This article provides a comprehensive review of the main types of surgical airways, relevant anatomy, necessary equipment, indications and contraindications, preparation and positioning, technique, complications, and tips for management. It is important to remember that the placement of a surgical airway is a lifesaving procedure and should be considered in any setting when one "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate".
  12 9,225 428
Rapid-sequence intubation and cricoid pressure
Joshua C Stewart, Sanjay Bhananker, Ramesh Ramaiah
January-March 2014, 4(1):42-49
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128012  PMID:24741497
Airway management is the most important clinical skill for anesthesiologist, emergency physician, and other providers who are involved in oxygenation and ventilation of the lungs. Rapid-sequence intubation is the preferred method to secure airway in patients who are at risk for aspiration because it results in rapid unconsciousness (induction) and neuromuscular blockade (paralysis). Application of cricoid pressure (CP) for patients undergoing rapid-sequence intubation is controversial. Multiple specialty societies have recommended that CP is not effective in preventing aspiration; rather it may worsen laryngoscopic view and impair bag-valve mask ventilation. Some experts think that CP should be applied in trauma and patients at risk for aspiration; however CP, if necessary, should be altered or removed to facilitate intubation.
  12 15,071 739
Clinico-epidemiological profile of poisoned patients in emergency department: A two and half year's single hospital experience
Indranil Banerjee, Santanu Kumar Tripathi, A Sinha Roy
January-March 2014, 4(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128007  PMID:24741492
Context: Poisoning is a common cause for attending emergency department of hospitals. Aims: To explore the epidemiological characteristics and clinical profile of patients presenting with poisoning in emergency department. Settings and Design: Prospective, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. Materials and Methods: Relevant epidemiological and clinical data from patients, presenting with history/clinical features of poisoning in emergency department of a tertiary care district hospital in India, were collected and analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Data analysis was done by using descriptive and inferential statistical methods: Frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation (SD). A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 4,432 patients with history and/clinical features of poisoning were included in the study. The females clearly outnumbered male patients. Poisoning with suicidal intent was more frequent (81.08%) than accidental (18.92%) (P < 0.0001). Majority of the patients were housewives followed by farmers, businessmen, laborers, and students. The mean time interval between poison consumption and admission to hospital was 6.4 hours (Mean ± SD: 6.4 ± 2.29). Snakebite (31.90%) was the most common cause of poisoning followed by organophosphorus compounds (21.84%), rodenticide (16.49%), alcohol (13.80%), chemicals (9.04%), and drugs (2.3%). The mean GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale) score of the poisoned patients at presentation was 6.85 ± 1.62. Of all the patients included in the study, 3,712 patients (83.76%) survived and 720 patients (16.24%) expired. Conclusions: The current piece of work suggests that most of the poisoning cases involved young age group particularly females. Snakebite and organophosphorus compounds contributed most of the poisoning cases which calls for urgent government initiatives for improvement in proper lighting of the district to prevent snakebite and controlled use of pesticides.
  8 4,388 214
Assessment of performance and utility of mortality prediction models in a single Indian mixed tertiary intensive care unit
Prachee M Sathe, Sharda N Bapat
January-March 2014, 4(1):29-34
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128010  PMID:24741495
Objectives: To assess the performance and utility of two mortality prediction models viz. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in a single Indian mixed tertiary intensive care unit (ICU). Secondary objectives were bench-marking and setting a base line for research. Materials and Methods: In this observational cohort, data needed for calculation of both scores were prospectively collected for all consecutive admissions to 28-bedded ICU in the year 2011. After excluding readmissions, discharges within 24 h and age <18 years, the records of 1543 patients were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Results: Both models overpredicted mortality in this cohort [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.95 ± 0.06 using APACHE II and SAPS II respectively]. Patterns of predicted mortality had strong association with true mortality (R2 = 0.98 for APACHE II and R2 = 0.99 for SAPS II). Both models performed poorly in formal Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit testing (Chi-square = 12.8 (P = 0.03) for APACHE II, Chi-square = 26.6 (P = 0.001) for SAPS II) but showed good discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.86 ± 0.013 SE (P < 0.001) and 0.83 ± 0.013 SE (P < 0.001) for APACHE II and SAPS II, respectively). There were wide variations in SMRs calculated for subgroups based on International Classification of Disease, 10 th edition (standard deviation ± 0.27 for APACHE II and 0.30 for SAPS II). Interpretation and Conclusion: Lack of fit of data to the models and wide variation in SMRs in subgroups put a limitation on utility of these models as tools for assessing quality of care and comparing performances of different units without customization. Considering comparable performance and simplicity of use, efforts should be made to adapt SAPS II.
  7 3,869 92
Extraglottic airway devices: A review
Ramesh Ramaiah, Debasmita Das, Sanjay M Bhananker, Aaron M Joffe
January-March 2014, 4(1):77-87
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128019  PMID:24741502
Extraglottic airway devices (EAD) have become an integral part of anesthetic care since their introduction into clinical practice 25 years ago and have been used safely hundreds of millions of times, worldwide. They are an important first option for difficult ventilation during both in-hospital and out-of-hospital difficult airway management and can be utilized as a conduit for tracheal intubation either blindly or assisted by another technology (fiberoptic endoscopy, lightwand). Thus, the EAD may be the most versatile single airway technique in the airway management toolbox. However, despite their utility, knowledge regarding specific devices and the supporting data for their use is of paramount importance to patient's safety. In this review, number of commercially available EADs are discussed and the reported benefits and potential pitfalls are highlighted.
  6 17,092 657
Evaluation of rapid response team implementation in medical emergencies: A gallant evidence based medicine initiative in developing countries for serious adverse events
Mohammed Fayyaz Rashid, Mohammed Imran, Yash Javeri, Monika Rajani, Shadab Samad, Omender Singh
January-March 2014, 4(1):3-9
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128005  PMID:24741490
Background: Rapid response team (RRT) has been implemented in developed countries with the aim of early recognition and response to critical care triggers for the better patient outcome. However, the data concerning their efficacy is hardly available until date from Indian subcontinent. Aims: To evaluate the impact of RRT implementation on patient outcome during medical emergencies. Settings and Design: Retrospective observational study of RRT records of in-bed patients of super specialty academic teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: RRT record forms during the first half of the year from January 2012 to June 2012 were included for all inpatients and out-patients irrespective of their age, gender and diseases profile after their inclusion in the system. Outcomes such as patient stayed in the room, patient transfer to intensive care unit (ICU), patient discharge and generation of code blue event, mortality and length of stay in hospital/ICU were measured. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis was performed with the help of statistical software STATA 9.0 and R 2.13.2 (StataCorp LP, Lakeway Drive College Station, Texas, USA). Results: Analysis of 41 RRT calls showed decreased code blue calls by 2.44% and decrease in mortality by 4.88%. Average length of stay in ICU and hospital post RRT assistance for patients was 2.55 and 6.95 days respectively. Conversely percentage of patients requiring a higher level of care was more (75.61%) than those who stayed in their rooms/wards (24.39%). Conclusion: Implementation of RRT in this hospital was associated with reduced code blue events and its attendant mortality outside the ICU settings. However, more number of patient requiring higher levels of care delineates the need for a larger evidence based medicine study.
  5 6,208 218
Benefits of thrombolytics in prolonged cardiac arrest and hypothermia over its bleeding risk
Raghav Gupta, Aditi Jindal, Hope Cranston-D'Amato
January-March 2014, 4(1):88-90
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128021  PMID:24741503
A 52-year-old non-smoking Caucasian male, who was admitted to our emergency room after he was found unconscious in the bathroom, went into cardiac arrest requiring prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and hypothermia therapy. Cardiac catheterization showed non-obstructive coronary arteries and further bedside echocardiogram suggested probable pulmonary embolism (PE) as an underlying cause of cardiac arrest. Although thrombolytic therapy is an effective therapy for PE, it is not routinely given during prolonged CPR for its life- threatening bleeding complications. Many reported cases have suggested a beneficial effect of empiric thrombolytic in cardiac arrest, but unrelated to duration of resuscitation and adjuvant treatments that imposes bleeding risk. We suspect that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) should be promptly given to prolonged cardiac arrest patients, even when bleeding risk is high with the concurrent hypothermia treatment, keeping the benefits over risk strategy. Our patient received thrombolytic, tPA and showed remarkable clinical, physiological and radiographical improvement.
  1 3,701 93
Making endotracheal intubation easy and successful, particularly in unexpected difficult airway
Susanne Abdulla, Sina Abdulla, Karl-Peter Schwemm, Regina Eckhardt, Walied Abdulla
January-March 2014, 4(1):24-28
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128009  PMID:24741494
Background: Difficult intubation, most often due to poor view of the vocal cords on laryngoscopy is an intermittent and often challenging problem for clinically practicing anesthesiologists, maxillofacial surgeons, ear nose, and throat (ENT), emergency, and critical care physicians. Purpose: We present a new approach for facilitating difficult intubation and evaluate its efficacy in a retrospective observational study. Settings and Design: Operating room, emergency department, intensive care unit (ICU), retrospective observational study. Materials and Methods: A semirigid 5.6 Rüsch tracheal tube introducer (bougie) with its soft tip protruding at least 6 cm (=4 digits) beyond the distal end of the tube was used. After its insertion through the larynx under laryngoscopy, the tube was gently advanced upon rotation at 360΀ clockwise. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive. Results: Anesthesia services were analyzed on 10,363 patients over 12 months. In 2453 patients (23.7%) (Group A) intubated in the usual way, difficulties were encountered in 63 patients (2.6%). They were managed either with tube rotation technique (n = 60) or Bonfils endoscope (n = 3). In contrast, 2807 patients (27.1%) (Group B) were intubated using tube rotation technique with introducer. Difficult intubations occurred only in three patients (0.11%) who could be managed with tube rotation by experienced consultant anesthesiologists. Conclusions: The tube rotation technique for intubation was introduced during the Gulf War and has been practiced for the past 19 years without any obvious damage to the trachea in Germany. However, it should be used only by physicians being well familiar with this technique. In addition, well designed controlled studies are needed.
  1 5,130 477
Whats New in Critical Illness and Injury Science? Airway management: Is this as good as it gets?
Aaron M Joffe
January-March 2014, 4(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128004  PMID:24741489
  - 2,819 138
Panic attack: An unusual cause of spontaneous pneumomediastinum
James S Papadimos, Christopher S Davis, Thomas J Papadimos
January-March 2014, 4(1):91-92
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128023  PMID:24741504
  - 2,545 62
Accidental penetrating chest injury with concealed retained wooden stick: A diagnostic dilemma and management
Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Satya Sunder Gajendra Mohapatra, Santosh Kumar Behera
January-March 2014, 4(1):92-93
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128025  PMID:24741505
  - 2,366 58
Evaluation of critical care outreach services in a tertiary care Hospital in India: A retrospective analysis
Nidhi Srivastava, Mohan Deep Kaur, Sandeep Sharma
January-March 2014, 4(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128006  PMID:24741491
Background: Critical care outreach services (CCOS) is a relatively a new concept in India and is not as developed as in Western countries. Efficient utilization of limited intensive care service requires comprehensive CCOS. Appropriate activation of such services will limit excess burden on already scarce human resources. Aim: To evaluate the functioning of CCOS in a tertiary care hospital and also to identify factors leading to its overactivation. Materials and Methods: Data of 400 calls received in resuscitation room (RR) of the Trauma Center during January 2011-June 2011 was analyzed. Categorical variables were summarized by calculating the frequency and percentage. Records of the department sending the call, purpose of the calls, and designation of the person sending the calls were noted. Calls were grouped into appropriate or inappropriate. Results: Maximum calls were received from medicine wards (65.8%) followed by neurosurgery ward (12.5%). Of all, 26% of the calls were sent by senior doctors (senior resident), whereas 69.4% of the calls were sent by junior doctors. 66.2% of the calls were indicated for assessment and intensive care unit (ICU) transfer, whereas central venous/intravenous access constituted 14.8% of the calls. Intubation and ventilator settings constituted 7.3 and 7.8% calls, respectively. About one-third (36.2%) of all calls were inappropriate. Conclusion : There is inefficient use of human resources in CCOS in our hospital. Lack of objective activation criteria and inefficient training in basic lifesaving skills and ventilator know-how were identified as primary factors for the same.
  - 4,211 124
Esophageal assessments of left ventricular filling pressures: A proof-of-concept study
Markus Meyer, Stephen P Bell, Neeraj Sardana, Richard Zubarik, Martin M LeWinter, Harold L Dauerman
January-March 2014, 4(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/2229-5151.128008  PMID:24741493
Objective: We sought to evaluate if left ventricular filling pressures can be assessed from the esophagus. Background: The invasive assessment of left ventricular filling pressures is of importance in the evaluation and monitoring of critically ill patients. The left atrium is in very close proximity to the esophagus. We hypothesized that the temporal pressure decay characteristics of an esophageal fluid volume positioned at the level ofthe left atrium should depend on the atrial and left ventricular filling pressure. Materials and Methods: In five pigs an esophageal balloon was placed at the level ofthe left atrium. The balloon was then pressurized to 50 mmHg followed by an automated release that allowed us to directly record the pressure decay, while simultaneously recording left atrial pressures. An algorithm was developed to estimate atrial pressures. We also tested if invasive transesophageal atrial pressures can be recorded via an ultrasound guided left atrial puncture. Results: Noninvasive transesophageal assessments of left atrial pressures are feasible. The left atrial pressure directly affects the esophageal pressure decay and correlates with the transition point from an exponential pressure decay to a more linear decay (r = 0.949). This approach also allows for the assessment of atrial waveforms. We could also demonstrate that invasive transesophageal pressure measurements are feasible and safe. Conclusions: The esophagus allows for reproducible less invasive assessments of left ventricular filling pressures and atrial pressure waveforms. This close spatial relationship provides an alternative access site for diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac procedures.
  - 3,025 51