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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2021
Volume 11 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 109-187

Online since Saturday, September 25, 2021

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EDITORIAL  

What's new in critical illness and injury science? An evidence-based analysis of the impact of Janus Kinase inhibitors on 28-day mortality in patients admitted with COVID-19 p. 109
Andrew C Miller, Yannick A D'Silva
DOI:10.4103/ijciis.ijciis_80_21  
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Prevalence of discharge against medical advice and its associated demographic predictors among pediatric patients: A cross-sectional study of Saudi Arabia p. 112
Nesreen Suliman Alwallan, Ahmad Mohammed Ishaque Al Ibrahim, Wafa Elrasheed Osman Homaida, Majid Alsalamah, Saeed Mastour Alshahrani, Badr F Al-Khateeb, Salwa Bahkali, Khalid Ibrahim Al-Qumaizi, Paivi Toivola, Ashraf El-Metwally
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_96_20  
Background: Discharge against medical advice (DAMA) occurs when the patient or their caretaker leaves the hospital against the recommendation of their treating physician. DAMA may expose the children to a high risk of inadequate treatment, which may result in readmission, prolonged morbidity, and mortality. The study aimed to identify the predictors of DAMA in the emergency department (ED) within the pediatric age group. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The study used the medical records of pediatric patients (n = 5609) that were admitted to the ED of King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAAUH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during 2017 and 2018. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square, or Fisher's exact test were used. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios with their 95% CI were reported by performing logistic regression modeling. Results: A significant interaction between age and gender was observed in the multivariate analysis after adjusting for the other covariates. The odds of DAMA for a 5-year-old female child were 4.43 times higher than those of a 5-year-old male child (P < 0.1). Conclusions: The public should be educated about the consequences of DAMA. Continued health education and the promotion of child survival strategies at the community level, combined with an improvement in the socioeconomic conditions of the population, may further reduce DAMA and improve the chances of survival for children. Future studies should assess the socioeconomic status of the patients and estimate the cost that is incurred by the patients.
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Validation of the vasoactive-inotropic score in predicting pediatric septic shock mortality: A retrospective cohort study p. 117
Antonius Hocky Pudjiadi, Dwi Lestari Pramesti, Sudung O Pardede, Mulyadi M Djer, Rinawati Rohsiswatmo, Nastiti Kaswandani
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_98_20  
Introduction: Mortality in pediatric septic shock remains very high. Vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS) is widely used to predict prognosis in patients with heart disease. It is a simple method that was initially used as a predictor of morbidity and mortality in postoperative patients with congenital heart diseases. Previous reports showed that high VIS score was associated with high mortality in pediatric sepsis. However, its discriminative value remains unclear. We aim to explore the discriminative value of VIS in predicting mortality in pediatric septic shock patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study on medical records of septic shock patients who received care in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We screened medical records of pediatric patients which were diagnosed with septic shock and admitted to the PICU and received vasoactive/inotropic score for more than 8 h. Other supporting examination results were recorded, such as organ function evaluation for calculation of Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction-2 (PELOD-2) score. The outcome of patients was recorded. The receiver operating curve was constructed to calculate the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of each cutoff point. Results: We obtained the optimum cutoff point of VIS > 11 with 78.87% sensitivity and 72.22% specificity. AUC positive was 0.779 (P < 0.001); predictive value and negative predictive value were 91.80% and 46.43%, respectively. Conclusion: VIS > 11 has a good ability to predict mortality in children with septic shock.
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Acute kidney injury in ventilated patients with coronavirus disease-2019 pneumonia: A single-center retrospective study p. 123
Mohamed Hamed Elkholi, Zeyad Faoor Alrais, Abdallah Reda Algouhary, Muthana Salim Al-Taie, Amr Abass Sawwan, Abdelnasser Ahmed Khalafalla, Maged Mohsen Beniamein, Adel Elsaid Alkhouly, Mohamed Ibrahim Shoaib, Hesham Elsaid Alkholy, Ammar Mohamed Abdel Hadi, Ahmed Tarek Abu Alkhair
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_194_20  
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is repeatedly observed in ventilated critically ill patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. This study aimed to determine the incidence, risk factors, and consequences of AKI in the ventilated critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: This retrospective study included all the ventilated critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 pneumonia from March 1, 2020, to June 1, 2020. Data were collected from the electronic medical system. AKI was diagnosed using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2012 Clinical Practice definition. Patients were followed 90 days from the intensive care unit (ICU) admission time or to the date when they were discharged from the hospital. Results: AKI occurred in 65.1% of patients, with 26.6% of these started on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Patients with AKI had higher comorbidity and illness severity scores (P < 0.001). Age and the vasopressor requirements were predictors of AKI (P= 0.016 and P = 0.041) and hypertension predicted AKI (P = 0.099) and its progression (P = 0.05). The renal recovery rate was 86.7% and was associated with the mean arterial pressure on ICU admission in the no-CRRT group (P = 0.014) and the hypoxic index in the CRRT group (P = 0.019). AKI was associated with higher mortality (P = 0.017) and significantly longer ICU length-of-stay (P = 0.001). Additionally, AKI patients were more often discharged to a long-term skilled nursing facility (P = 0.005). Conclusion: COVID-19-associated AKI was common and associated with poor outcome, with the specific mechanisms being the main driving factors.
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Use of heart rate variability to predict hospital length of stay for COVID-19 patients: A prospective observational study p. 134
Fateme Khodadadi, Sujata Punait, Jacek Kolacz, Farid Zand, Ali Foroutan, Gregory F Lewis
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_196_20  
Background: As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, determining hospital demands has become a vital priority. Heart rate variability (HRV) has been linked to both the presence of viral infection and its severity. We investigate the possibility of using HRV parameters in comparison to other clinical parameters for predicting the hospital length of stay (LOS) for COVID-19 patients. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study. Measurements were performed in a specialized hospital for respiratory disease, dedicated to COVID-19. Patients were polymerase chain reaction positive for COVID-19 and on their 1st day of admission. Heart period, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), low frequency (LF) HRV, and vagal efficiency were calculated from electrocardiogram signals. This study investigated the correlation of HRV, demographic, and laboratory parameters with hospital LOS. Results: Forty-one participants were recruited, with a significant relationship, observed between hospital LOS and some demographic and clinical parameters such as lymphocyte count, age, and oxygen saturation of arterial blood. There was a negative relationship between LF and hospital LOS (r = −0.53, 95% confidence interval: −0.73, −0.24). Higher vagal efficiency predicted shorter hospital LOS in patients younger than 40 years of age (19.27% shorter hospital LOS was associated with a one SD higher value of VE, P = 0.007). Conclusion: HRV measurement is a non-invasive, inexpensive, and scalable procedure that produces several metrics, some of which are useful for predicting hospital LOS and managing treatment resources during COVID-19 pandemic.
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Plasma from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery does not activate endothelial cells under shear stress in vitro p. 142
Sophie F Ellermann, Thomas W L. Scheeren, Rianne M Jongman, Katja Nordhoff, Christiane L Schnabel, Grietje Molema, Gregor Theilmeier, Matijs Van Meurs
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_197_20  
Background: Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is commonly associated with acute kidney injury, and microvascular endothelial inflammation is a potential underlying mechanism. We hypothesized that pro-inflammatory components of plasma from patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery with CPB induce endothelial adhesion molecule expression when incorporating altered shear stress in the in vitro model. Methods: The clinical characteristics and markers of systemic inflammation and kidney injury were analyzed pre and postoperatively in 29 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB. The effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and patient plasma on the expression of endothelial inflammation and adhesion markers were analyzed in vitro. Results: Plasma TNF-α was elevated 6 h postoperation (median: 7.3 pg/ml (range: 2.5–94.8 pg/ml)). Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in plasma peaked 6 h (99.8 ng/ml (52.6–359.1 ng/ml)) and in urine 24 h postoperation (1.6 ng/mg (0.2–6.4 ng/mg)). Urinary kidney injury molecule-1 concentration peaked 24 h postoperation (0.5 ng/mg (0.2–1.2 ng/mg). In vitro, the expression of E-selectin was induced by 20 pg/ml TNF-α. In addition, the expression of interleukin-8, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was induced by 100 pg/ml TNF-α. Compared to healthy control plasma exposure, postoperative plasma did not increase the expression of markers of endothelial inflammation and adhesion under shear stress in vitro. Conclusion: Patients undergoing CPB surgery showed mild systemic inflammation and kidney injury. However, the plasma components did not stimulate endothelial inflammation and adhesion molecule expression in vitro.
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Macintosh laryngoscope versus AMBU King Vision video laryngoscope for endotracheal intubation using a COVID-19 barrier box: A randomized controlled trial p. 151
Sangeeta Sahoo, Neha Singh, Chitta Ranjan Mohanty, Upendra Hansda, Jyotiranjan Sahoo, Ajitesh Sahu
DOI:10.4103/ijciis.ijciis_34_21  
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) barrier box is being used by health-care workers for protection against aerosol-transmitted infection. Usually, a Macintosh laryngoscope (MC) or a video laryngoscope (VL) is used for endotracheal intubation (ETI). We aimed to determine the most suitable laryngoscope blade in terms of time to ETI, ease of ETI, and the first-pass success rate. Methods: American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I and II patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were randomized into the MC and the King Vision VL groups in a 1:1 ratio. ETI was performed using either the MC (the MC group) or the King Vision VL (the VL group) with a COVID-19 barrier box. The first-pass intubation success rate, intubation time, and ease of ETI were analyzed. Results: The first-pass success rate was higher in the MC group (P = 0.43). The mean duration of ETI was 33 s and 47 s in the MC group and VL group, respectively. The difference was statistically significant between the groups (P = 0.002). The ease of ETI was comparable between the groups (P = 0.57), and the Cormack–Lehane grade was significantly different between the groups (P = 0.0025). Conclusion: ETI duration was shorter in the MC group than in the VL group. Hence, a MC can be used along with a COVID-19 barrier box by experienced operators for the prevention of aerosol spread.
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The effect of a tiered provider staffing model on patient outcomes during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: A single-center observational study p. 156
James Dargin, Susan Stempek, Yuxiu Lei, Anthony Gray, Timothy Liesching
DOI:10.4103/ijciis.ijciis_37_21  
Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, our hospital experienced a large influx of critically ill patients with acute respiratory failure. In order to increase intensive care unit (ICU) surge capacity, we adopted a “tiered model” for ICU provider staffing where multiple ICUs were staffed by noncritical care providers under the direction of an intensivist. We hypothesized that ICUs staffed with a tiered model would result in similar patient outcomes as ICU staffed with a traditional intensivist model. Methods: We performed a single-center, observational study in seven ICUs at a tertiary care center. We included consecutive adults admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 infection. We collected baseline demographics, treatments, and outcomes of interest in traditionally staffed ICUs versus ICUs staffed with a tiered model. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. All outcomes were censored at day 28. Results: We included a total of 138 patients in our study: 66 patients were admitted to traditionally staffed ICUs and 52 were admitted to tiered staffing ICUs. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. ARDS treatments were similar in traditionally staffed ICUs versus tiered staffing model ICUs, including daily mean tidal volume (6.2 mL/kg vs. 6.2 mL/kg, P = 0.95), median daily fluid balance (159 mL vs. 92 mL, P = 0.54), and use of prone ventilation (58% vs. 65%, P = 0.45). There was no difference in inpatient mortality between groups (50% vs. 42%, P = 0.46). We also found no difference in ventilator-free, ICU-free, vasopressor-free, and dialysis-free days between groups. Conclusions: Our results suggest that patient outcomes are similar in ICUs with traditional staffing models when compared to ICUs with a tiered staffing mode during a pandemic.
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Utility of early warning scores to predict mortality in COVID-19 patients: A retrospective observational study p. 161
Nidhi Kaeley, Prakash Mahala, Ankita Kabi, Suman Choudhary, Anirban Ghosh Hazra, Subramanyam Vempalli
DOI:10.4103/ijciis.ijciis_64_21  
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID19) has evolved as a global pandemic. The patients with COVID-19 infection can present as mild, moderate, and severe disease forms. The reported mortality of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infection is around 6.6%, which is lower than that of SARS-CoV and (middle east respiratory syndrome CoV). However, the fatality rate of COVID-19 infection is higher in the geriatric age group and in patients with multiple co-morbidities. The study aimed to evaluate the utility of early warning scores (EWS) to predict mortality in patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 infection. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary care institute of Uttarakhand. Demographic and clinical data of the admitted patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 infection were collected from the hospital record section and utilized to calculate the EWS-National early warning score (NEWS), modified early warning score (MEWS), Rapid Acute Physiology Score (RAPS), rapid emergency medicine score (REMS), and worthing physiological scoring system (WPS). Results: The area under the curve for NEWS, MEWS, RAPS, REMS, and WPS was 0.813 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.769–0.858), 0.770 (95% CI; 0.717–0.822), 0.755 (95% CI; 0.705–0.805), 0.892 (95% CI; 0.859–0.924), and 0.892 (95% CI; 0.86–0.924), respectively. Conclusion: The EWS at triage can be used for early assessment of severity as well as predict mortality in patients with COVID-19 patients.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Pathogenesis and therapy of arteriovenous malformations: A case report and narrative review p. 167
Steven Tessier, Brooke A Lipton, Firas Ido, Santo Longo, Sudip Nanda
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_127_20  
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal communications between arteries and veins that lack intervening capillary beds. They have been described in almost every organ in the body, emerging sporadically or as part of well-described syndromes. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare, progressive, and lifelong disease characterized by AVMs and recurrent hemorrhaging. In the last 2 decades, significant advances have been made in understanding the pathogenesis of this condition. The accumulation of knowledge has led to a natural evolution of therapy, from open surgery to endovascular procedures, and now to a role for medications in certain AVMs. Here, we review a case of HHT and describe the most up-to-date clinical practice, including diagnosis of HHT, subtypes of HHT, and medical therapy.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma unmasked by Vedolizumab in a patient with ulcerative colitis and well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus: A case report p. 177
Susanne O Ajao, Rajasingam Jayasingam, Hamid Shaaban
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_92_20  
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) was first described by Moritz Kaposi as a vascular tumor that mainly involves the skin but can affect any organ system. It is typically an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defining illness but has emerged as a neoplasm also seen in patients on immunosuppressive therapy. Few KS cases have been reported in the literature associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. We report the case of a 39-year-old male with well-controlled human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and ulcerative colitis (UC) who presented to the hospital with new skin lesions shortly after the initiation of vedolizumab to treat his refractory UC. Immunohistochemistry of the skin lesions was consistent with Kaposi's sarcoma secondary to human herpesvirus-8. This is a rare case of iatrogenic KS in a well-controlled HIV patient secondary to immunosuppressive therapy.
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Superior vena cava perforation complicating ultrasound-guided subclavian venous catheterization: A case report p. 181
Cengiz Kaya, Muzeyyen Beldagli, Burcin Celik
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_139_20  
We present a case of a severe mechanical complication (superior vena cava [SVC] perforation) that developed after subclavian vein catheterization using an ultrasound-guided static approach in a patient who underwent right lower lobectomy with video-assisted thoracic surgery. The use of ultrasound during catheterization is reported to reduce mechanical complications. Despite the use of ultrasound in our patient, surgical exploration showed that the catheter placed in the right subclavian vein penetrated the superior portion of the SVC. At the end of the surgery, the catheter was removed under direct visualization. The surgeon attempted to stop bleeding in the SVC by compressing with gauze. However, bleeding could only be stopped by administering a hemostatic matrix. It is concluded that to reduce the incidence or size of iatrogenic perforation of the SVC, catheters with the smallest possible diameter should be used, and the dilator should only be inserted deep enough to enter the vein. If the static approach is used, the modifiedSeldinger technique is useful and to provide training to improve the ultrasound experience, especially if the dynamic approach is used.
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CLINICAL IMAGE Top

Frog sign and AV nodal reentrant tachycardia: A case report p. 185
Matthew Krinock, Lauren Stone, Vikas Yellapu, Eluwana Amaratunga, Anish Parameswaran, Gabrielle Krinock, Sudip N Nanda
DOI:10.4103/IJCIIS.IJCIIS_118_20  
Supraventricular tachycardia is one the most frequent cardiac arrhythmias seen in patients, with AVNRT being the most common subtype. Two subgroups of AVNRT have been reported, that of typical and atypical. “Frog Sign,” long considered a classic physical exam sign, albeit rare, is associated with typical AVNRT. We present a case of a patient who presented with frog sign and ultimately was determined to have AVNRT. Knowledge of “frog” sign aids clinical diagnosis and correct treatment.
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