|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 2 | Page : 77-81
Mortality in patients receiving prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation time in the emergency department: A retrospective cohort study
Sorravit Savatmongkorngul, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Napathom Sunsuwan, Pungkawa Sricharoen, Chetsadakon Jenpanitpong, Konwachira Maijan, Sorawich Watcharakitpaisan, Parama Kaninworapan
Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand
|Date of Submission||22-Jul-2021|
|Date of Acceptance||11-Oct-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||24-Jun-2022|
Dr. Chaiyaporn Yuksen
Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Patients waiting for intensive care unit (ICU) admission cause emergency department (ED) crowding and have an increased risk of mortality and length of stay (LOS) in hospital, which increase the hospitalization cost. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) time in patients in the ED.
Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in patients who received IMV in the ED of Ramathibodi Hospital. The correlation between mortality at 28 days after intubation and IMV time in the ED was analyzed. The cutoff time was analyzed to determine prolonged and nonprolonged IMV times. ICU ventilation time, length of ICU stay, and LOS in the hospital were also analyzed to determine their correlations between IMV time in the ED.
Results: In this study, 302 patients were enrolled, 71 died, and 231 survived 28 days after receiving IMV in the ED. We found that the duration of >12 h of IMV in the ED increased the 28-day mortality rate by 1.98 times (P = 0.036). No correlations were found between IMV time in the ED and ventilation time in the ICU, length of ICU stay, and LOS in the hospital.
Conclusion: More than 12 h of IMV time in the ED correlated with mortality at 28 days after initiation of IMV. No associations were found between prolonged IMV time in the ED with ventilation time in the ICU, length of ICU stay, and LOS in the hospital.
Keywords: Intensive care units, length of stay, mechanical ventilation, respiratory failure
|How to cite this article:|
Savatmongkorngul S, Yuksen C, Sunsuwan N, Sricharoen P, Jenpanitpong C, Maijan K, Watcharakitpaisan S, Kaninworapan P. Mortality in patients receiving prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation time in the emergency department: A retrospective cohort study. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci 2022;12:77-81
|How to cite this URL:|
Savatmongkorngul S, Yuksen C, Sunsuwan N, Sricharoen P, Jenpanitpong C, Maijan K, Watcharakitpaisan S, Kaninworapan P. Mortality in patients receiving prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation time in the emergency department: A retrospective cohort study. Int J Crit Illn Inj Sci [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 19];12:77-81. Available from: https://www.ijciis.org/text.asp?2022/12/2/77/348007
| Introduction|| |
Emergency department (ED) crowding is a common problem in public hospitals and a significant public health problem in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Australia, and Africa that leads to various disadvantages, significantly diminished quality of patient care. Owing to ED crowding, patients must wait longer to be attended by a physician and stay longer in the ED, which increases their risk of mortality. A previous study showed that patients who received emergency care in crowded ED had increased 28-day mortality of 1.34 and that ED crowding affected the management of diseases where time is an important variable. ED becomes crowded because of the high number of patients who require emergency service and delayed patient admission. The solution to this problem is to improve the patient care process in the ED and the hospital system as a whole.,
Patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in the ED are considered critical cases. A previous study showed that the 28-day mortality after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) was 30%. Therefore, patients requiring IMV should receive care in the ICU or intermediate ICU, but delay ICU admission may occur due to the hospital capacity or ICU bed not being available. Usually, these patients should be admitted to the ICU within 6 h after emergency room administration. Patients with delayed admission have an increased risk of mortality of 1.4 times. Moreover, the length of stay (LOS) in hospitals is increased by 1.5 times because of limited ICU resources. Patients waiting for ICU admission cause ED crowding and have an increased risk of mortality and LOS in hospitals, increasing hospitalization costs.
In Ramathibodi Hospital, more than 55,000 patients visit ED service/year, of whom more than 8,000 patients were admitted as inpatients. More than 50 patients/month require IMV, and more than 500 patients/month had LOS for more than 24 h in ED.
This research study aimed to determine the correlation between IMV time in the ED and mortality rate, including LOS in hospitals, to improve the quality of patient care and fluidity of the patient care process in both the ED and ICU.
| Methods|| |
This retrospective cohort study was conducted in the ED of Ramathibodi Hospital. Patients (>15 years old) with respiratory failure who received IMV in the ED and did not meet the exclusion criteria were evaluated. The research was conducted between October 1, 2019, and May 30, 2020.
Data were collected from RAMA electronic medical records in five parts as follows: part 1, baseline characteristics such as age, sex, work shift, and emergency severity index (ESI) triage level; Part 2, intubation data such as place of intubation, history of intubation, intubation protocol, and indication for intubation; Part 3, data of illness, such as vital signs at first presentation, underlying disease, and diagnosis; Part 4, prognostic severity scores such as acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score on the 1st day of receiving IMV in the ED (ED APACHE II score), first 24 h after admission in the ICU (ICU APACHE II score), difference between the ED and ICU APACHE II scores (delta-APACHE II score), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score on the 1st day of receiving IMV in the ED, SOFA score in the first 24 h after ICU admission, and difference between the ED and ICU SOFA scores (delta-SOFA score); and Part 5, data on time and result of treatment, such as ER arrival time, intubation time, time from ED arrival to ventilation, inpatient department/ICU arrival time, total ventilation time in the ED, extubation time, total ICU ventilation time, ICU discharge time, total length of ICU stay, hospital discharge time, total LOS in hospital, discharge status, and 28-day mortality. Data were collected from patients who met the inclusion criteria and then analyzed, and the research results were summarized following the research objectives.
The inclusion criteria were patients with respiratory failure (>15 years old) who received IMV in the ED of the Ramathibodi Hospital. Trauma patients, patients intubated because of cardiac arrest, patients with a past and present history of tracheostomy, patients referred from and to other hospitals, postcardiac arrest patients, patients with incomplete medical records, and patients who refused medical care were excluded from the study.
Sample size calculation
According to Hung et al., IMV time in the ED of >4 h was considered prolonged. A pilot study was conducted on 40 patients and obtained the following values: P (outcome/exposure) of 0.17, P (outcome/exposure) of 0.19, alpha of 0.05, and a beta of 0.2. The study sample of 554 patients included 277 and 277 previously exposed and unexposed to IMV.
The patients' baseline characteristics were evaluated using descriptive statistics and presented as frequency and percentage for categorical data and mean and standard deviation for continuous data. The Chi-square or Fisher exact test was used to compare the categorical data, and the Student t-test was used to compare continuous data. The analysis results using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented as odds ratio (95% confidence interval [CI]). Significant factors were defined as those with P < 0.05. All statistical analyses were performed by Stata 16 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA).
| Results|| |
At baseline, of 302 patients, 155 were male (51.32%) and 147 were female (48.68%) [Figure 1]. The mean age in both groups was 72.23 years. We found no significant differences between the two groups when considering 28-day mortality after IMV in the ED.
The patients were divided into five levels according to the ESI triage as follows: ESI level 1, 41 patients (13.58%); ESI Level 2, 222 patients (73.51%); and ESI Level 3, 34 patients (11.26%). Most patients received medical service during the evening shift. No significant differences in ESI triage level and work shift were found.
The indications for intubation in 251 patients (83.39%) were oxygenation and ventilation failure, and sedative agents were used as an intubation protocol in 176 patients (58.28%). When considering 28-day mortality after IMV in the ED, we found no significant differences in intubation and intubation protocol indications.
The incidence rates of underlying diseases, namely hypertension in 165 patients (54.64%), diabetes in 31.79% of the patients, chronic kidney disease in 26.49%, and cancer in 25.50%, were similar. Of the patients, 146 (48.34%) and 40 (13.25%) were diagnosed with respiratory tract infection and pulmonary edema, respectively.
The patients were evaluated using the APACHE II and SOFA scores on the 1st day of receiving IMV in the ED. The mean ED APACHE II score was 21.79, and the mean ED SOFA score was 5.62. When the patients were reevaluated after admission for 24 h in the ICU, the mean ICU APACHE II and SOFA scores were 20.08 and 5.71, respectively. Statistically significant differences were found between the ED and ICU APACHE II and SOFA scores.
The mean total length of ED stay and ventilation time was 21.88 and 13.02 h, respectively. The mean total ICU ventilation time and length of hospital stay were 9.36 and 20 days, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two groups. However, the mean length of hospital stay and total length of ICU stay were 20 days (9.92%) and 12.78 days (13.66%), respectively, with statistically significant differences between the groups [Table 1].
According to our statistical data analysis using multivariate logistic regression and patient groups divided according to IMV time, with longer 2 h, the odds of mortality of the patients with IMV time in the ED of >12 h at 28 days after intubation was 1.98 times higher than in those with ventilation times <12 h, and this difference is statistically significant [Table 2].
|Table 2: Correlation between 28-day mortality and invasive mechanical ventilation time in emergency department|
Click here to view
As shown in [Table 2], IMV time >12 h was defined as the cutoff prolonged IMV time. It was used to determine the correlations of IMV time in the ED, ventilation time in the ICU, length of ICU stay, and length of hospital stay [Table 3].
|Table 3: Correlation of emergency department invasive mechanical ventilation time, intensive care unit ventilation time, length of intensive care unit stay, and length of hospital stay|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
Our results show that IMV time of >12 h at 28 days after intubation correlated with statistically significant odds of increasing ICU ventilation time, length of ICU stay, and length of hospital stay, but IMV time <12 h showed no such correlations.
Many recent studies have investigated the cutoff time to define prolonged IMV in the ED. Hsieh et al. found that time of >1 h defines prolonged IMV in the ED that increases the odds of mortality by 2.18 times (95% CI, 1.07–4.45, P = 0.03). Hung et al. found that IMV time of >4 h increased the odds of mortality by 1.41 times (95% CI, 1.05–1.89; P = 0.024). Their study also showed a trend of increasing odds, consistent with the results of the studies as mentioned earlier, but the cutoff time was 12 h, which increased the odds by 1.98 times (95% CI, 1.05–3.77; P = 0.036), which is different from their result. Previous studies were conducted in hospitals with more ICU beds, unlike in Ramathibodi Hospital, where patients wait longer for an ICU bed. Moreover, Donal et al. found that the waiting time for an ICU bed of >6 h increased the length of hospital stay (mean, 6 days) as compared with <6 h (mean, 7 days; P < 0.001), which is related to the finding of Hung et al. that a waiting time for an ICU bed of >4 h increased the length of hospital stay to >30 days, with an odds of 1.56 times higher (95% CI, 1.07–2.27; P = 0.020). For this study, when considering a duration of >12 h for IMV in the ED, we found no correlation with ventilation time in the ICU, length of ICU stay, and length of hospital stay.
Intensive care and continuous close monitoring are essential in patients with critical conditions, especially those with acute respiratory failure. Delayed ICU admission shows evidence of the poor outcome. ED crowding leads to ineffective patient care. Inadequate ICU capacity is one reason for patients with critical conditions' more extended ED stay, especially those receiving IMV. Not delay mechanical ventilation in ED may improve the outcomes in critically ill patients. This limitation leads to increased mortality, according to our study result.
The ED of Ramathibodi Hospital also faces this problem. From 2017 to 2017, approximately 500 patients had >24 h of ED stay, and >50 patients received IMV.
According to our study result, prolonged invasive ventilation time in the ED of >12 h increased the 28-day mortality rate significantly. However, our cutoff time (12 h) was longer than that in another study but represented the context of a more crowded hospital with lesser capacity. The findings from this study are useful in the allocation of ICU beds and the prioritization of patients for ICU admission.
In this research, we collected patient data from a single-center Ramathibodi Hospital for only 1 year, which resulted in insufficient data for establishing strong statistical evidence.
| Conclusion|| |
More than 12 h of IMV time in the ED correlate with increased 28-day mortality, but prolonged IMV time in the ED showed no association with ventilation time in the ICU, length of ICU stay, and LOS in hospital.
Research quality and ethics statement
This study was approved by the Committee for Research, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital Mahidol University (Approval # COA.MURA2019/945; Approval date September 28, 2019). The authors followed the applicable EQUATOR Network (http://www.equator-network.org/) guidelines, specifically the STROBE Guidelines, during the conduct of this research project.
We thank Angela Morben, DVM, ELS, from Edanz Group (www.edanzediting.com/ac), for editing a draft of this manuscript.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts of interest.
| References|| |
Pines JM, Bernstein SL. Solving the worldwide emergency department crowding problem – What can we learn from an Israeli ED? Isr J Health Policy Res 2015;4:52.
Bernstein SL, Aronsky D, Duseja R, Epstein S, Handel D, Hwang U, et al.
The effect of emergency department crowding on clinically oriented outcomes. Acad Emerg Med 2009;16:1-10.
Richardson DB. Increase in patient mortality at 10 days associated with emergency department overcrowding. Med J Aust 2006;184:213-6.
Jo S, Jeong T, Jin YH, Lee JB, Yoon J, Park B. ED crowding is associated with inpatient mortality among critically ill patients admitted via the ED: Post hoc
analysis from a retrospective study. Am J Emerg Med 2015;33:1725-31.
Tangkulpanich P, Yuksen C, Kongchok W, Jenpanitpong C. Clinical predictors of emergency department revisits within 48 hours of discharge; a case control study. Arch Acad Emerg Med 2021;9:e1.
Morley C, Unwin M, Peterson GM, Stankovich J, Kinsman L. Emergency department crowding: A systematic review of causes, consequences and solutions. PLoS One 2018;13:e0203316.
Esteban A, Frutos-Vivar F, Muriel A, Ferguson ND, Peñuelas O, Abraira V, et al.
Evolution of mortality over time in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2013;188:220-30.
Nates JL, Nunnally M, Kleinpell R, Blosser S, Goldner J, Birriel B, et al.
ICU admission, discharge, and triage guidelines: A framework to enhance clinical operations, development of institutional policies, and further research. Crit Care Med 2016;44:1553-602.
Hung SC, Kung CT, Hung CW, Liu BM, Liu JW, Chew G, et al.
Determining delayed admission to Intensive Care Unit for mechanically ventilated patients in the emergency department. Crit Care 2014;18:485.
Cowan RM, Trzeciak S. Clinical review: Emergency department overcrowding and the potential impact on the critically ill. Crit Care 2005;9:291-5.
Pereverzeva L, Uhel F, Peters Sengers H, Cremer OL, Schultz MJ, Bonten MM, et al.
Association between delay in Intensive Care Unit admission and the host response in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Ann Intensive Care 2021;11:142.
Chalfin DB, Trzeciak S, Likourezos A, Baumann BM, Dellinger RP, DELAY-ED Study Group. Impact of delayed transfer of critically ill patients from the emergency department to the Intensive Care Unit. Crit Care Med 2007;35:1477-83.
Hsieh CC, Lee CC, Hsu HC, Shih HI, Lu CH, Lin CH. Impact of delayed admission to Intensive Care Units on patients with acute respiratory failure. Am J Emerg Med 2017;35:39-44.
Mosier JM, Fisher JM, Hypes CD, Bedrick EJ, Campbell ES, Lutrick K, et al.
A target for increased mortality risk in critically Ill patients: The concept of perpetuity. J Clin Med 2021;10:3971.
[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]